Psychological Function and Menopause

For many years, a decline in estrogen at the time of menopause was associated with an increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mood disturbances. Current evidence reveals that this is not consistent with how the majority of women experience their menopausal years. Although women experience more depression than men, it generally occurs earlier and is most frequent in 20- to 30-year-olds.

Hormone Replacement Therapy for Perimenopause

Often, patients are surprised when I explain that hormone replacement therapy typically contains lower dosages of estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) than does oral contraception. A typical dose of standard hormone replacement therapy is 0.625 milligrams of conjugated equine estrogen taken orally, which is equivalent to 0.05 milligrams 17 B-estradiol patch or 5 milligrams ethinyl estradiol taken orally. In comparison, a very low-dose oral contraceptive contains 20 milligrams of ethinyl estradiol, or four times that found in a typical standard hormone replacement dose given to a post-menopausal woman.

Your 6 Month Old Baby

Every baby develops at different times, enjoy his accomplishments and look forward to those in the future.

Feeding. Babies should continue with breast milk or infant formula until he is 1 year old. A cup can be introduced if it hasn’t been yet. Be sure your baby is sitting up while eating to help your baby learn good eating habits. He may want to maneuver his own food. He may want to mash, smash and smear his food. Be patient and be prepared.

Breast Changes What Happens

Most breast symptoms in premenopausal women are caused by the normal changes in hormone levels during a menstrual cycle 3. In the 2 weeks before a woman’s period, levels of estrogen increase. Symptoms usually get worse during this time. As soon as the menstrual period starts, the estrogen levels drop and levels of progesterone increase until the middle of the cycle. Symptoms usually get better during this time.

Symptoms caused by the hormones of the menstrual cycle usually disappear at menopause, unless a woman takes a hormone replacement.

Noncyclic breast pain often goes away on its own without treatment.

Cysts may get better after a menstrual period, or they may persist and grow larger. Draining a cyst with a needle (aspiration) usually makes it disappear, but it may return, especially if it is large.

Solid masses, such as fibroadenomas, may be surgically removed, partially removed and examined in a lab (biopsy), or left in place and watched very closely. They will not go away without surgery, but they will not become cancerous.

Abscesses or infections are usually treated with antibiotics. In some cases, surgery is needed to drain an abscess.

See the topic Breast Cancer in the CancerNet portion of the Knowledgebase for a discussion of the course and treatment of breast cancer. Use the search feature to look up breast cancer.

Abbigail Brooke

When I was at about 28 weeks gestation the baby slowed her movement dramatically, when I noted it to the Dr. he decided to perform a Fetal Stress Test and the results were unsatisfactory, they performed a total biophysical profile on my baby and found something that concerned them about the blood flow to my baby, but didn’t exactly tell me what was going on. Just scared me half to death when he suggested that I go an hour and a half drive to another town to see a specialist because he thought there may be an interuption of the blood getting to my baby.


Oxytocin is a naturally produced hormone that enhances contractions. Pitocin is a synthetic form of oxytocin that is given to women for the purpose of inducing or speeding up labor. Pitocin can be helpful in situations where a baby is significantly overdue or labor is not progressing as it should. The contractions it produces are more effective than natural contractions, especially if labor is not progressing enough. In rare cases, Pitocin can cause problems for mother and baby, but because Pitocin is only used when necessary, experts generally agree that its benefits outweigh its risks.

High-Risk Pregnancy

But Jennifer in Michigan, who was 26 when she found out she had PCOS, didn’t fare as well during her high-risk pregnancy. Like many others who have the syndrome, Jennifer began showing signs of PCOS as soon as she stopped taking birth-control pills, which had regulated her periods and simulated an ovulation pattern that didn’t happen naturally in her body.

Vaginitis. Symptoms and Treatment

What is the definition of Vaginitis?

The vagina frequently becomes inflamed and infected as a result of various pathogens, allergic reactions, vaginal contraceptives or other products, or the friction of sexual intercourse.